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— Edward Zajec

(1938, Trieste, IT) studied fine arts at the Cooper School of Art, Cleveland, OH (1959–1961), the Akademija za likovno umetnost in oblikovanje, Ljubljana (grad. 1966), and at Ohio University, Athens, OH (M.F.A. 1968). 1968 instructor at Carleton College, Northfield, MN, where he began working with computers. 1969 teaching position for painting at St. Olaf College, Northfield. 1970 returned to Trieste where he continued artistic work with computers. 1980 professor of computer art at the Transmedia Center at Syracuse University, where he instituted computer graphics for the fine arts program. He lives in Syracuse, NY, USA.
Exhib.: 1968, RAM L1, Boliou Gallery, Northfield, MN. 1969, exhib. accompanying the “Fall Joint Computer Conference,” Las Vegas, NV. 1970, RAM, Galleria La Cappella, Trieste.
Lit.: E. Z., “The Cube: Theme and Variations,” in: PAGE, 20, 1972, p. 4.

— Walter Zehringer

(1940, Memmingen, DE) studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, Munich. 1965 1969 member of Effekt. He lives in Herbertsfelden, DE.
Exhib.: 1964, Mouvement 2, Galerie Denise René, Paris. 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. See also: Effekt.
Lit.: See: Effekt.


was founded in 1957 by Heinz Mack and Otto Piene. Mack and Piene formed the group’s core together with Günther Uecker who joined them in 1961. The group existed until 1966 and published three issues of a magazine with the group’s name as a title from 1958 to 1961.
Exhib.: 1957, 1. Abendaustellung, Atelier Gladbacher Str. 69, Düsseldorf. 1958, 7. Abendausstellung. Das rote Bild, Atelier Gladbacher Str. 69, Düsseldorf. 1958, 8. Abendausstellung. Vibration, Atelier Gladbacher Str. 69, Düsseldorf. 1961, Zero. Edition Exposition Demonstration, Galerie Schmela, Düsseldorf. 1962, Nul, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.
Lit.: Otto Piene, “The Development of Group ‘Zero’,” in: TLS, September 3, 1964, pp. 812f.

— Joseph Ziegler

([–], Kansas City, MO, USA) was a computer scientist employed at the Magnetic Resonance Institute, Kansas City, MO. 1966 founding member of the Art Research Center (ARC). He lives in the Los Angeles area.
Exhib. and lit.: See: Art Research Center (ARC).

— Vilko Žiljak

(1946, Sveti Ivan Zelina, today HR) studied electrical engineering at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing at the University of Zagreb (Ph.D. 1981). From 1999 professor of graphic technology and head of the department of typography and computer graphics at the Faculty of Graphic Art at the University in Zagreb. He lives in Zagreb, HR.

— Anton Zöttl

(1933, Munich, DE) studied electrical engineering at the Technische Universität München, Munich. From 1957 theoretical work in radar technology, especially in information processing in complex radar systems. From 1970 production of computer graphics using a Siemens computer and CalComp plotter. He lives in Munich.


Compiled by Simon Bieling.