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— Gianfranco Laminarca

(1941, Milan, IT – 1990, Milan) studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. 1964 founding member of Gruppo MID. Since 1972 director of MID Design / Communicazione Visiva and of MID Design.
Exhib.: 1966, Kunst Licht Kunst, Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven. See also: Gruppo MID.
Lit.: See: Gruppo MID.

— Edoardo Landi

(1937, San Felice sul Panaro, IT) studied architecture at the Scuola Superiore di Disegno Industriale, Venice. 1959–1964 founding member of Gruppo N. 1965/1966 member of Gruppo enne 65. He lives in Vigliano Biellese, IT.
Exhib.: See: Gruppo N.
Lit.: E. L., Landi, Opere 1961–1971, Abano Terme, 1972. See also: Gruppo N.

— Bernard Lassus

(1929, Chamalières, FR) studied painting at the Atelier Fernand Léger and the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris. 1963–1969 teaching assignment at the École Nationale Supérieure d’Horticulture, Versailles. 1961 founded the Centre de Recherche d’Ambiance. 1968 professor at École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Paris La Villette and at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. 1995–2000 associate professor at the University of Pennsylvania. 2001–2003 visiting professor at the University of Cambridge. Since 2004 professor at the University of Bologna. He lives in Paris, FR.
Exhib.: 1964, Mouvement 2, Galerie Denise René, Paris. 1966, KunstLichtKunst, Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven.

— John Latham

(1921, Livingstone, today ZM – 2006, London, UK) served in the Royal Navy (1940–1946). He studied at Regent Street Polytechnic, London (1946), and at Chelsea College of Art, London (1946–1951). 1954 founding member of the Institute for the Study of Mental Images, Church Crookham. 1965 founding member of Artist Placement Group (APG) with his wife Barbara Steveni. 1965–1976 teaching assignment at St Martin’s School of Art, London.
Exhib.: 1961, The Art of Assemblage, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1964, The Object Transformed, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1970, Information, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

— Walter Leblanc

(1932, Antwerp, BE – 1986, Silly, BE) studied at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp (1949–1954) and at the Hoger Instituut voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp (1955–1956). 1958 founding member of the group G58, which disbanded in 1962. 1962 organized exhibition Anti-Peinture at the Hessenhuis, Antwerp. 1977–1986 taught at the Instituut voor Architectuur en Stendenbouwkunde, Antwerp.
Exhib.: 1960, Monochrome Malerei, Städtisches Museum Leverkusen Schloss Morsbroich. 1962, Anti-Peinture, Hessenhuis, Antwerp. 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1966, Venice Biennale.

— Auro Lecci

(1938, Florence, IT) studied architecture at the University of Florence, the University of Oregon (1960/1961), and the University of Massachusetts (1970–1972). 1965 joined Centro Proposte, a visual arts initiative led by Lara Vinca Masini. 1965 started collaboration with the Studio di Fonologia Musicale di Firenze (S2FM). 1966 participated in the electronic music program at the Conservatorio Cherubini in Florence. 1967 formed the Centro Ricerche Estetiche F uno with Maurizio Nannucci, Paolo Masi, and Lanfranco Baldi. 1968 started to generate computer graphics in collaboration with Cnuce , the University of Pisa computer center. He lives in Florence.
Exhib.: 1966, Strutture organizzate, Conservatorio Cherubini, Florence. 1970, Generación automática de formas plásticas, computer center of the University of Madrid. 1970, Venice Biennale.

— Julio Le Parc

(1928, Mendoza, AR) studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes Prilidiano Pueyrredón, Buenos Aires (1943–1947). 1960 founding member of the Centre de Recherche d’Art Visuel. 1961 founding member of the Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel (GRAV). He lives in Cachan, FR.
Exhib.: 1964, Venice Biennale. 1966, Venice Biennale. See also: Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel (GRAV).
Lit.: J. L. P., À propos de art-spectacle, spectateur actif, instabilité et programmation dans l’art visuel, folder, Paris, September 1962. J. L. P., “Déclaration,” in: GRAV (ed.), L’Instabilité, exhib. cat., Maison des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1962, n. p. J. L. P., “Guerilla culturelle,” in: Robho, 3, Spring 1968, n. p. See also: Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel.

— Sol LeWitt

(1928, Hartford, CT, USA – 2007, New York, NY, USA) studied at Syracuse University, NY (1945–1949, B.A. 1949). He served in the U.S. Army in Japan and Korea (1951/1952). 1953 moved to New York, where he attended the Cartoonists and Illustrators School. 1955–1956 worked as a graphic designer for the architect I. M. Pei. 1960–1965 worked for The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1964–1971 taught at Cooper Union, School of Visual Arts, and New York University.
Exhib.: 1966, Primary Structures, The Jewish Museum, New York. 1969, When Attitudes Become Form, Kunsthalle Bern. 1971, At the Moment, Frankopanska 2a, Zagreb.

— Eugenio Lombardini

(1946, Rimini, IT) studied architecture at the University of Florence. 1968 member of the Gruppo di ricerca cibernetica. He lives in Rimini and Poggio di Maiolo, IT.
Exhib.: See: Gruppo di ricerca cibernetica.

— Georgij Ivanovič Lopakov

(1944, Tomilino, today RU) studied at a sculptor’s school and worked as a chaser. Member of Dviženije until 1972.
Exhib.: See: Dviženije.

— Wolfgang Ludwig

(1923, Mielesdorf, today Tanna, DE – 2009, Berlin, DE) studied at the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst, Leipzig (1947–1950) and the Hochschule für bildende Künste Berlin (1950–1956) with Hans Uhlmann and Alexander Camaro. 1956–1967 worked for the architect Paul G. R. Baumgarten. 1967 lecturer at the Akademie für Grafik, Druck und Werbung, Berlin. 1971–1991 professor of visual communication at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Berlin.
Exhib.: 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1968, Kunst aus dem Computer, accompanying the symposium “The Computer in the University” / “Der Computer in der Universität,” Technische Universität Berlin. 1969, Konstruktive Kunst: Elemente und Prinzipien, Kunsthalle Nürnberg, Nuremberg.