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— Wolf Kahlen

(1940, Aachen, DE) studied art, art history, and philosophy at the Werkkunstschule in Braunschweig (1960), at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Berlin, the Freie Universität Berlin (1961–1964), and as a guest student at Ateneum, Helsinki (1962), and Columbia University, New York (1965/1966). 1970 co-initiator of the Video Forum of the Neuer Berliner Kunstverein. 1973/1974 founding member of ADA I and ADA II (Avant-garde actions), Berlin. He lives in Berlin, DE.

— Sten Kallin

(1928, near Stockholm, SE) studied mathematics and physics at Uppsala University (M.A.) and worked for several years as a high school physics teacher. 1962 began to work with computers. 1963 joined IBM where he held the position of a senior systems engineer and worked with graphic output devices. 1970–1974 collaborated with Sture Johannesson on computer graphics.
Lit.: Sture Johannesson and S. K., Computer Art. Beraeknad Konst, Intra Secus, Malmö, 1974.

— Rudolf Kämmer

(1935, Rudolstadt, DE) studied at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden (1953–1956), the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst Leipzig (1956–1957), and the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, Munich, under Ernst Geitlinger (1957–1964). He lives in Münsing, DE.
Exhib.: 1968, public eye, Kunsthaus Hamburg.

— Hiroshi Kawano

(1925, Fushun, CN – 2012, Kobe, JP) studied German philosophy and aesthetics at the University of Tokyo (grad. 1951). 1955–1961 assistant professor at the University of Tokyo. 1961–1972 lecturer and associate professor at the Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering. 1964 published first examples of computer-generated pictures. 1972–1988 professor at the Metropolitan College of Technology, Tokyo. 1986 Ph.D. from Osaka University. 1986–1990 professor at the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology. 1990–1994 professor at Nagano University. 1994–1996 professor at the Tohoku University of Art and Design. 1997–2001 visiting professor et Tama Art University.
Exhib.: 1968, 1st Computer Art Contest, Sankei Building, Tokyo. 1970, Computer Art Exhibit, Plaza DIC, Tokyo. 1973, Cybernetic ARTRIP: Computer Art Exhibition ’73, Sony Building, Tokyo.
Lit.: H. K., [A Study on Aesthetics and Information Theory], in: [Report of Tokyo Metropolitan College of Air Technology], 1, 1962, pp. 77–85. H. K., [Computer and Design], in: IBM Review, 6, September 1964, pp. 53–57. H. K., [Design Simulation by Computer], in: [Summary of the Design Society’s 11th Convention], 1964, pp. 8–11. H. K., [Monte Carlo Method of Experimental Design], in: [Report of Tokyo Metropolitan College of Air Technology],  1964, pp. 75–91. H. K., “Computer Arts Exhibition. Demonstrated at the Plaza DIC. Kawano Hiroshi and Shimomura Chihaya,” in: [Graphic Design], 41, March 1971, pp. 31–42.

— On Kawara

(1933, Kariya, JP) lives in New York, NY, USA.
Exhib.: 1977, documenta 6, Kassel. 1982, documenta 7, Kassel.

— Boris Kelemen

(1930, Podravska Slatina, today HR – 1983, Zagreb, today HR) studied art history at the University of Zagreb (grad. 1955, Ph.D. 1966). 1956–1965 curator and head of the Benko Horvat Collection and 1965–1978 curator and head of the Galerija primitivne umjetnosti,  Zagreb. 1978–1983 head of Galerije grada Zagreba.
Lit.: B. K., Naivno slikarstvo Jugoslavije, Zagreb, 1969.

— László Kerekes

(1954, Stara Moravica, today RS) studied art conservation at the University of Belgrade and the University of Novi Sad (1972–1976). 1972–1974 member of the Bosch+Bosch group, Subotica. 1984/1985 art director of the art magazine Új Symposion, Novi Sad. Since 1988 he lives in Berlin, DE.

— Ed Kiënder

(1925, Wiesbaden, DE – 1996 Ibiza, ES) studied art and design in Mainz. 1971 teaching assignment at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Karlsruhe, DE.
Exhib.: 1961, 30 junge deutsche Künstler, Kunstverein St. Gallen. 1967, VI. Biennale Internazionale de San Marino.

— Tamara Klímová

(1922, Ostrava, today CZ – 2004, Bratislava, SK) studied at the Škole uměleckých řemesel, Brno (1940–1944) and the Vysoká škola uměleckoprůmyslová v Prave, Prague (1945–1951). 1959–1967 member of Skupina 4 and 1967–1972 of Klub konkrétistů.
Exhib.: 1962, Skupina 4, Majernik Gallery, Bratislava. 1968, Klub konkrétistů, Bratislava. 1970, Klub konkrétistů, Brno.
Lit.: Tomáš Štraus, Skupina 4, exhib. cat., Cyprian Majernik Gallery, Bratislava, 1966.

— Julije Knifer

(1924, Osijek, today HR – 2004, Paris, FR) studied painting at the Akademija likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu, Zagreb (1950–1956). 1959 founding member of Gorgona.
Exhib.: 1961, Jugoslawische Maler, studio f, Ulm. 1961, structures. l’art abstrait constructif des pionniers à nos jours, Galerie Denise René, Paris. 1966, Julije Knifer, Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb. See also: Gorgona.
Lit.: See: Gorgona.

— Kenneth C. Knowlton

(1931, Springville, NY, USA) studied engineering physics at Cornell University (M.S. 1955) and communication sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D. 1962). 1962 joined Bell Telephone Laboratories as a member of the computer technology research department. 1963 developer of the BEFLIX programming language for bitmap computer-produced movies, 1969 of EXPLOR, and later other experimental languages for stills and films for scientific and artistic purposes. 1966 collaboration with Leon D. Harmon. 1966–1970 collaboration with the filmmaker Stan VanDerBeek. 1968–1974 collaboration with the artist Lillian F. Schwartz on computer films. 1971 visiting professor of computer graphics, University of California, Santa Cruz; 1980 visiting professor, New Mexico State University. Since 1982 worked as consultant for different software companies. He lives in Budd Lake, NJ, USA.
Exhib.: 1967, Computer Art and Animation, Stable Gallery, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. 1968, The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechnical Age, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1968, Some More Beginnings, Brooklyn Museum, New York.
Lit.: K. C. K. “Computer-Generated Movies, Designs and Diagrams,” in: Martin Krampen and Peter Seitz (eds.), Design and Planning 2, New York, 1967, pp. 58–63. Leon D. Harmon and K. C. K., “Computer-Generated Pictures,” in: Jasia Reichardt (ed.), Cybernetic Serendipity, London, 1968, pp. 86f. Leon D. Harmon and K. C. K., “Picture Processing by Computer,” in: Science, 163, April 1969, pp. 19–29.

— Hans Köhler

(1922, Stuttgart, DE) studied painting and graphics at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart after an apprenticeship as a color lithographer and studies at the Höhere grafische Fachschule in Stuttgart. Assisted lectures by Max Bense at the Technische Hochschule Stuttgart. He worked as an art director for Kodak and as a chief design consultant for IBM Germany. He lives in Stuttgart.

— Hans König-Klingenberg

(1913, Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój / Bad Warmbrunn, today PL – 2005, Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój) did an apprenticeship in wood sculpting and later studied fine arts in Berlin and Dresden. He taught for fourteen years at the Meisterschule für Steinbildhauer, Aschaffenburg, DE.

— Želimir Koščević

(1939, Zagreb, today HR) studied art history and ethnology at the University of Zagreb (grad. 1964). 1965/1966 worked for the Muzej za umjetnost i obrt, Zagreb. 1966–1980 director of the Galerija Studentskog centra, Zagreb. 1980–2004 chief curator at the Gradska galerija suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb. 1975–1980 and 1989–1997 part-time professor of museology at the department of art history, University of Zagreb. 1992–1996 editor of twentieth-century-art encyclopedia. He is now program adviser of the Photo Gallery Lang in Samobor. He lives in Samobor, HR.
Lit.: Ž. K., Ispitivanje meðjuprostora, Zagreb, 1978. Jerko Denegri and Ž. K., EXAT 51, Zagreb, 1979.

— Jannis Kounellis

(1936, Piraeus, GR) studied at Ανώτατη Σχολή Καλών Τεχνών [Athens School of Fine Arts], Athens, and the Accademia di Belle Arti di Roma, Rome. 1993–2001 professor, Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. He lives in Rome, IT.
Exhib.: 1969, When Attitudes Become Form, Kunsthalle Bern. 1971, At the Moment, Frankopanska 2a, Zagreb. 1972, documenta 5, Kassel.

— Martin Krampen

(1928, Siegen, DE – 2015, Ulm, DE) studied theology, psychology, and art history in Tübingen and Heidelberg, and painting at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze, Florence (1950). He also studied at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm (HfG) (grad. 1957) and at Michigan State University, East Lansing (1962 Ph.D. in design and psychology). He taught at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm, at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, at the University of Waterloo, at the University of Toronto, at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Schwäbisch Gmünd, and at the University of Göttingen. 1977–1993 taught at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Berlin. 1998 professor honoris causa, Hochschule für Gestaltung Schwäbisch Gmünd. He lives in Ulm, DE.
Exhib.: 1967, Computergrafik, studio f, Ulm.
Lit.: M. K. (ed.), Design and Planning, New York, 1965. M. K., “Computer and Design,” in: ulm, 19, 1967, pp. 2–8. M. K. and Peter Seitz (eds.), Design and Planning 2, New York, 1967.

— Edward Krasiński

(1925, Łuck, today UA – 2004, Warsaw, PL) studied at the arts and crafts school in Krakow (1940–1942) and at the Krakow Academy of Fine Arts (1945–1948). From 1954 he lived in Warsaw, PL.
Exhib.: 1968, Edward Krasiński, Foksal Gallery, Warsaw. 1970, Tokyo Biennale.

— Radoslav Kratina

(1928, Brno, today SK – 1999, Prague, CZ) studied at the Škole uměleckých řemesel in Brno (1943–1948) and at the Vysoká škola uměleckoprůmyslová v Praze in Prague (1952–1957). 1968 member of Klub konkrétistů.
Exhib.: 1968, Klub konkrétistů, OG Vysociny, Jihlava. 1968, Klub konkrétistů, Galerie im Hause Behr, Stuttgart. 1968, Klub konkrétistů, Dům umění mešta Brna, Brno.

— Richard Kriesche

(1940, Vienna, AT) studied art pedagogy, painting, and graphic arts at the Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien, Vienna, and the University of Vienna (grad. 1963 and 1964). 1969 teaching assignment, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt, Graz. 1969 foundation of group pool. 1988–1991 teaching assignment Technische Universität Wien. From 1991 teaching assignment at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offebach am Main. 1995/1996 guest professor at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris. From 1996 director of the office for art and scientific affairs of the Styrian state government in Graz. 2003–2005 worked for Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz. He lives in Graz, AT.
Exhib.: 1970, Venice Biennale.

— Vlado Kristl

(1923, Zagreb, today HR – 2004, Munich, DE) studied at the Akademija likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu, Zagreb (1942–1949). 1950–1956 founding member of Exat 51. 1959 founded a school for animation film. 1954–1959 lived in Chile. 1963 moved to Munich. 1979–1997 taught at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg. From 1997 lived in southern France.
Exhib.: 1961, Jugoslawische Maler, studio f, Ulm. 1973, De consequenties van de machine, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam. See also: Exat 51.

— Fedor Kritovac

(1938, Zagreb, today HR – 2011, Zagreb) studied architecture at the University of Zagreb (grad. 1963, Ph.D. in social studies, urban sociology 1986). He worked at the Centar za industrijsko oblikovanje, Zagreb. He is member of ULUPUH, a gallery and department for fashion and design, Zagreb. He lives in Zagreb.
Lit.:. F. K., Dizajn, planiranje i razvoj proizvoda, Maribor, 1973.

— Jürgen Kriz

(1944, Ehrhorn, DE) studied psychology and social pedagogy at the University of Hamburg (1964 1965) and psychology, pedagogy, philosophy, astronomy, and astrophysics at the University of Vienna (1965–1968, Ph.D. 1969). 1967–1970 scholar and research assistant at the Institut für Höhere Studien (IHS), Vienna. 1970–1972 assistant professor of empiricism, statistics, and EDP at the seminar of social sciences, University of Hamburg. 1972–1974 associate professor of statistics, Faculty of Sociology, University of Bielefeld. 1974–1999 professor of empirical social research and statistics and their foundations in the philosophy of science, department of social sciences, University of Osnabrück. 1980/1981 professor of clinical psychology and intervention methods, University of Osnabrück. 1999 professor of psychotherapy and clinical psychology, department of psychology, University of Osnabrück. From 1999 psychotherapist. He lives in Osnabrück, DE.
Lit.: J. K., Subjektive Wahrscheinlichkeiten und Entscheidungen. Zur Problematik von Methodenartefakten in der Entscheidungstheorie, Vienna, 1968.

— Udo Kultermann

(1927, Stettin, DE, today Szczecin, PL) studied art history, philosophy, German language and literature, and archaeology at the University of Greifswald and at the University of Münster (1946–1953). 1986–1994 taught architecture at Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA, where he is professor emeritus since 1994. Corresponding member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb. He lives in New York City, NY, USA.
Lit.: U. K., Geschichte der Kunstgeschichte. Der Weg einer Wissenschaft, Vienna, 1966. U. K., Neue Dimensionen der Plastik, Tübingen, 1967. U. K., The New Painting, London, 1969.