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— California Computer Products

CalComp Technology, Inc., Anaheim, CA, USA, known as CalComp, founded in 1959, produced plotters, digitizers, and other graphic input and output devices. In 1968, CalComp organized an international competition for computer and plotter art. The firm published and distributed works by Doyle Cavin, Ace Hudson, Dee Hudson, Larry Jenkins, Jane Moon, and Kerry Strand. It was bought by Lockheed in the 1980s and closed production in 1999.
Exhib.: 1968, Cybernetic Serendipity, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London.

— Milan Čanković

(1934, Garešnica, today HR) studied architecture at the University of Zagreb (grad. 1958). Worked for the architecture office Novogradnja until 1961 and for the architecture office Ostrogović until 1977. From 1977 lecturer at the University of Zagreb, and professor since 1995. He lives in Zagreb, HR.

— Alessandro Carlini

(1943, Lanciano, IT) studied architecture at the University of Naples (1961–1967). 1964 founding member of Operativo Sud 64, Naples. Moved to Berlin in 1967, where he lives today. 1970 stay in London, UK.
Exhib.: 1968, Objekt Strukturen – Environment Strukturen, Galerie Mikro, Berlin.
Lit.: A. C. and Bernhard Schneider, Konzept 1. Architektur als Zeichensystem, Tübingen, 1971.

— Flavio Casadei

(1928, Rimini, IT) studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna (1946–1948). 1956–1961 lived in Bern, CH, from 1962 in Rimini. 1962/1963 founding member of Gruppo di ricerca cibernetica. Teacher at the Liceo Scientifico Serpieri di Rimini.
Exhib.: See: Gruppo di ricerca cibernetica.

— Enrico Castellani

(1930, Castelmassa, IT) studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux Arts in Brussels (1952–1956). 1959 co-founder with Piero Manzoni and Agostino Bonalumi of magazine Azimuth and Galleria Azimut.
Exhib.: 1960, La nuova concezione artistica, Galleria Azimut, Milan. 1964, Venice Biennale. 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1966, Venice Biennale.

— Doyle Cavin

([–]) was employed by California Computer Products (CalComp).
Exhib. and lit.: See: California Computer Products.

— Silvio Ceccato

(1914, Montecchio Maggiore, IT – 1997, Milan, IT) studied law and music. 1949 founder of Methodos, an international magazine published until 1964. 1956 designed and built Adamo II, the first Italian prototype of artificial intelligence. Teaching assignments in the philosophy of science at the University of Milan, where he founded the Centro di Cibernetica e di Attività Linguistiche, which he directed until the mid-1960s.
Lit.: S. C., “La machine qui pense et qui parle,” in: Conference Proceedings 1st International Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, June 1956, Paris, 1958, pp. 288–299. S. C., Cibernetica per tutti, Milan, 1968.

— Harold Chase

(c. 1945, [–], VT, USA) studied painting at the Kansas City Art Institute (B.F.A. c. 1966). 1966 founding member of the Art Research Center (ARC). He lives in Wyoming, USA.
Exhib. and lit.: See: Art Research Center (ARC).

— Giuseppe Chiari

(1926, Florence, IT – 2007, Rome, IT) studied engineering at the University of Florence. 1961 founding member of the Vita Musicale Contemporanea association. 1962 participated in the New York Fluxus movement.
Exhib.: 1962, Fluxus Festival, Wiesbaden. 1964 and 1965, Fluxus Festival, New York. 1972, documenta 5, Kassel.

— Ennio Chiggio

(1937, Naples, IT) studied in Venice. 1960 member of Gruppo N. He lives in Padua, IT.
Exhib. and lit.: See: Gruppo N.

— Andreas Christen

(1936, Bubendorf, CH – 2006, Zurich, CH) studied product design at Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich under Hans Fischli (1956–1959). 1971/1972 teaching assignment at Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg, DE.
Exhib.: 1960, Konkrete Kunst. 50 Jahre Entwicklung, Helmhaus, Zurich. 1962, 10 Monoforms, Galerie Suzanne Bollag, Zurich. 1966, Weiss auf Weiss, Kunsthalle Bern.

— Jarmila Čihánková

(1925, Roštín, today CZ) studied at the technical high school in Bratislava (1942–1945) and at the Vysoká škola uměleckoprůmyslová v Praze, Prague (1945–1950). 1967–1970 member of the Klub konkrétistů. She lives in Smolenice, SK.
Exhib.: 1966, Skupina 4, Galéria Cypriána Majerníka, Bratislava. 1968, Klub konkrétistů, Oblastní galerie Vysočiny, Jihlava. 1970, Polymúzický priestor I – socha, objekt, svetlo, hudba, Piešťany.
Lit.: Arsén Pohribný, Klub konkrétistů, exhib. cat., Oblastní galerie Vysočiny, Jihlava, 1968.

— Boris Cikalovski

(1934, Bileća, today BA – 1992) studied at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb (grad. 1958, Ph.D. 1986). He lives in Zagreb, HR.
Lit.: B. C., Prostorno istraživanje “M”, Dubrava, 1969.
Exhib.: 1967, 3. trijenale likovnih umetnosti: beogradski sajam – hala III, Belgrade.

— Ivan Čižmek

(1937, Zagreb, today HR) studied at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb (grad. 1962). From 1970 he worked for the Urbanistički institut SRH, Zagreb. He lives in Zagreb.
Lit.: Jerko Denegri and I. Č., Radomir Damnjanović-Damnjan, Zagreb, 1966.

— Peter Clapp

(1943, Albany, NY, USA) studied at the Boston Museum School (1961–1963) and at the Kansas City Art Institute (1967–1969, B.F.A. 1969). Member of the Art Research Center (ARC). He works as a graphic designer and lives in Santa Fe, NM, USA.
Exhib. and lit.: See: Art Research Center (ARC).

— Inge Claus-Jansen

(1940, Bochum, DE) studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, Munich, under Ernst Geitlinger. She lives in Schwaig bei Nuremberg, DE.
Exhib.: 1968, Inge Claus-Jansen und Karl-Ludwig Schmaltz: Statische und bewegte Objekte. Galerie Porta, Wuppertal. 1968, bilder – grafik – objekte – plastik, Brasilianisches Generalkonsulat München, Munich. 1968, public eye, Kunsthaus Hamburg.

— Jeroen Clausman

(1947, Maartensdijk, NL) studied biology (grad. 1976). 1968 founding member of Compos 68. 1976–1985 worked for the province administration of South-Holland in ecological research. 1976–2004 project manager in the province administration of South-Holland. 2005 co-founder of the Rijp voor Groen BV consulting company. He is owner of the Jeroen Clausman webdesign company and lives in Utrecht, NL.
Lit.: See: Compos 68.

— Gianni Colombo

(1937, Milan, IT – 1993, Melzo, IT) studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan (1956–1959). 1959 founding member of Gruppo T.
Exhib.: 1966, Weiss auf Weiss, Kunsthalle Bern. See also: Gruppo T.
Lit.: See: Gruppo T.

— Compos 68

Compos 68 was founded in 1968 in Utrecht by Jan Baptist Bedaux, Jeroen Clausman, and Arthur Veen to work on the connection between art and computer.
Lit.: Arthur Veen, “Compos 68,” in: Peter Struycken, Vormgeving en exacte disciplines. Design and The Exact Disciplines, Utrecht, 1971, n. p.

— Željka Čorak

(1943, Zagreb, today HR) studied art history at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb (Ph.D. 1976). 1969–1971 editor of Telegram and then research assistant at the Institute of Art History, Zagreb. 1992–2000 vice-president of Croatian PEN. Board member of Croatian PEN until today. She lives in Zagreb.

— Waldemar Cordeiro

(1925, Rome, IT – 1973, Sao Paulo, BR) studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes and at the Scuola di S. Giacomo in Rome. 1946 moved to Sao Paulo. 1951/1952 founder of the group Ruptura. From 1968 experiments in computer art, from 1969 collaboration with Giorgio Moscati on computer graphics. 1971 organized the exhibition Arteônica – O Uso Criativo dos Meios Eletrônicos em Arte, Sao Paulo. 1972 lecturer at University of Campinas (Unicamp), head of the Centro de Processamento de Imagens do Instituto de Artes.
Exhib.: 1952, Ruptura, Museu de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo. 1960, Konkrete Kunst. 50 Jahre Entwicklung, Helmhaus, Zurich. 1970, Computer Plotter Art, Galeria da USIS, Sao Paulo.

— Toni Costa

(1935, Padua, IT) studied at the Istituto Superiore d’Architettura, Padua (1958–1961). 1960–1963 member of Gruppo N. He lives in Padua.
Exhib.: 1961, structures. l’art abstrait constructif des pionniers à nos jours. Galerie Denise René, Paris. See also: Gruppo N.
Lit.: See: Gruppo N.

— Carlos Cruz-Díez

(1923, Caracas, VE) studied at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas in Caracas (1940–1945). 1957 founder of the Estudio de Artes Visuales, Caracas. 1958–1960 taught at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas, Caracas, and at the Escuela de Periodismo of the Central University of Venezuela. Since 1960 he lives in Paris, FR.
Exhib.: 1961, Bewogen Beweging, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. 1962, Venice Biennale. 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1970, Venice Biennale.

— Charles Csuri

(1922, Grant Town, WV, USA) studied engineering at the Newark College of Engineering (1943–1945) and fine arts at the Ohio State University (B.A. 1947 and M.F.A. 1948). 1949 faculty member of the department of art, Ohio State University. 1964 started to use digital computers for artistic drawings. 1968–1986 research in computer graphics funded by the National Science Foundation, The Navy, and Defense Department. 1970 organized the exhibition Interactive Sound and Visual Systems. 1971 founded the Computer Graphics Research Group (CGRG). 1978 professor of art education. 1986 professor of computer and information science. 1987 Advanced Computer Center for Art and Design (ACCAD). He lives in Columbus, OH, USA.
Exhib.: 1956, Charles Csuri, Harry Salpeter Gallery, New York. 1968, computer graphic, Dům umění města Brna, Brno. 1968, Cybernetic Serendipity, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London.

Lit.: C. C. and James Shaffer, “Art, Computers and Mathematics,” in: AFIPS Conference Proceedings, 33, 1968, pp. 1293–1298. C. C., Interactive Systems. Computer Animated Film, Electronic Sound, Video, Light, Electromyogram, and Environmental Collage, exhib. cat., College of the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1970.

— Juan Cuenca

(1934, Puente Genil, ES) studied architecture in Madrid. 1957–1962 founding member of Equipo 57. He lives in Córdoba, ES.
Exhib. and lit.: See: Equipo 57.