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The present collection of biographies comprises the biographies of all those artists and theorists who ever participated in any New Tendencies event between 1961 and 1973. In the printed version of the book, we were constrained to include only a selection of those biographies originally compiled by Simon Bieling.

Unfortunately, neither was it possible in the printed version of the book to account for all those artists about whom we had researched and requested material. For this reason, those works which were sadly not included in the book are to be presented in the short biographies of the respective artists.


John F. Abbick

(1945, Topeka, KS, USA) studied psychology at Rockhurst College, Kansas City (B.S. 1967) and design at the University of Southern Illinois, Carbondale, with Richard Buckminster Fuller (B.F.A. 1968). 1966 founding member of the Art Research Center (ARC). 1968–1971 Russian studies graduate at Syracuse University. 1968/1969 organized Dviženije exhibition in the USA in Syracuse, NY, and Kansas City, MO.
Exhib. and lit.: See: Art Research Center.

— Marc Adrian

(1930, Vienna, AT – 2008, Vienna) studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien, Vienna (1948–1954). 1957–1960 guest student at IDHEC, Paris, and in 1965 studied psychology of perception at the University of Vienna. 1966/1967 first works with computer. 1970–1973 teaching assignment at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg. 1980–1981 artist in residence at the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. From 1965, he lived mainly in Vienna.
Exhib.: 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1969, Kunst und Computer, Zentralsparkasse Wien, Vienna.
Lit.: M. A., “Kurzgefasste Theorie des methodischen Inventionismus,” in: Siegfried J. Schmidt (ed.), Empirie in Literatur- und Kunstwissenschaft, Munich, 1979, pp. 197–203. M. A., “Komputer und die Demokratisierung des ästhetischen Bewusstseins,” in: Kunst und Computer, exhib. cat., Zentralsparkasse Wien, Vienna, 1969, n. p.

— Vincenzo Agnetti

(1926, Milan, IT – 1981, Milan) studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan.
Exhib.: 1972, documenta 5, Kassel.

— José Luis Alexanco

(1942, Madrid, ES) studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid. 1968–1973 participated in seminar “Generación automática de formas plásticas” at the computer center of the University of Madrid. He lives in Madrid.
Exhib.: 1969, Formas computables, computer center of the University of Madrid. 1970, Generación automática de formas plásticas, computer center of the University of Madrid. 1971, The Computer Assisted Art, Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones, Madrid.
Lit.: J. L. A., “Posibilidades y necessidad de un análisis de un proceso intuitivo,” in: Ernesto García Camarero (ed.), Ordenadores en el arte. Generación automática de formas plásticas, Madrid, 1969, pp. 24–33.

— Kurd Alsleben

(1928, Königsberg in der Neumark, today Chojna, PL) studied at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Karlsruhe (1949–1952). 1960 collaboration with Cord Passow on computer graphics. 1965 teaching assignment at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm (HfG). Since 1970 professor at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg. He lives in Hamburg, DE.
Exhib.: 1968, Cybernetic Serendipity, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London. 1968, Some More Beginnings, Brooklyn Museum, New York. 1969, Computer-Kunst. On the Eve of Tomorrow, Kubus, Hannover.
Lit.: K. A., Aesthetische Redundanz. Abhandlungen über die artistischen Mittel der bildenden Kunst, Quickborn, 1962.

— Getulio Alviani

(1939, Udine, IT) studied architecture and engineering. He lives in Milan, IT.
Exhib.: 1962, arte programmata, Showroom Olivetti, Milan. 1964, Venice Biennale. 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1968, documenta 4, Kassel.

— Giovanni Anceschi

(1939, Milan, IT) studied psychology and philosophy at the University of Milan (1957–1959) and visual communications with Tomás Maldonado, Abraham A. Moles, and Max Bense at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm (HfG) (1962–1966). 1959 founding member of Gruppo T. Teaching assignments at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm (1966), in Venice, and in Milan (1971–1976). He lives in Milan.
Exhib.: 1961, Bewogen Beweging, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. See also: Gruppo T

— Anonima Group

was founded in 1960 by Ernst Benkert, Francis R. Hewitt, and Ed Mieczkowski in the studio of Ernst Benkert in Springs, Long Island, NY, USA. The group organized several exhibitions in self-operated galleries: the 10021 Gallery, Cleveland, OH, and the Anonima Gallery, New York, NY. It disbanded in 1971.
Exhib.: 1962, Recent Development in Visual Design: Perception and Constructs, 10021 Gallery, Cleveland, OH. 1965, The Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1967, Perceptual Inquiry I: Overlap, Anonima Gallery, New York.
Lit.: Francis R. Hewitt, Perceptual Inquiry 1: Overlap, exhib. cat., Anonima Gallery, New York, 1967. Henry P. Raleigh, “Anonima Group,” in: Leonardo, vol.2 no.4, October 1969, pp. 423–443.

— Anonymous Collective

is a group of conceptual artists from Hungary, who submitted a publication to tendencije 5 / tendencies 5 in 1973. Members were Gábor Attalai, Imre Bak, András Baranyay, Tibor Csiky, Tibor Gáyor, Gyula Gulyás, István Haraszty, Tamás Hencze, György Jovánovics, Ilona Keserü, László Lakner, Péter Legéndy, János Major, Dóra Maurer, Gyula Pauer, Tamás Szentjóby, Endre Tót, and Péter Türk.

— Giovanni Anselmo

(1934, Borgofranco d’Ivrea, IT) is a self-taught artist. Joined the Arte Povera movement in the late 1960s. He lives in Turin, IT.
Exhib.: 1969, When Attitudes Become Form, Kunsthalle Bern. 1971, At the Moment, Frankopanska 2a, Zagreb. 1972, documenta 5, Kassel.

— Marina Apollonio

(1940, Trento, IT) studied at the Accademia di Bella Arti di Venezia, Venice (grad. 1960). She lives in Padua, IT.
Exhib.: 1973, Marina Apollonio. Werke 1964–1973, Neue Galerie Graz.

— Umbro Apollonio

(1911, Trieste, today IT – 1981, Bassano del Grappa, IT), 1948–1970 curator for the Venice Biennale. 1949–1972 director of the Archivio Storico delle Arti Contemporanee at the Venice Biennale. General Secretary of the Venice Biennale. 1950–1972 editor of the magazine La Biennale di Venezia. Lecturer in history of contemporary art at the University of Padua. Editor of the magazine Art International.
Lit.: U. A., Pittura italiana moderna, Venice, 1950.

— Giulio Carlo Argan

(1909, Turin, today IT – 1992, Rome, IT) was an Italian art historian and politician. 1976–1979 first Communist mayor of Rome.
Lit.: G. C. A., “Arte concreta,” in: Arte astratta e concreta in Italia, exhib. cat., Galleria nazionale d’arte moderna, Rome, 1951, pp. 5–7. G. C. A., “La ricerca gestaltica,” in: Il Messaggero, September 10, 1963, p. 3. G. C. A., “Un ‘futuro tecnologico’ per l’arte?,” in: Metro, 9, 1966, pp. 14–19.

— ars intermedia

was founded in 1966 in Vienna, AT, by Otto Beckmann. Its primary working field was computer art. The first members were Otto Beckmann, Alfred Grassl, Oskar Beckmann, Gerd Koepf, and Gerhard Schedl. The group ended its activities in 1980.
Exhib.: 1969, Elektronische Computerkunst und cinematrische Abläufe (Visual Research), Wiener Secession, Vienna. 1969, Kunst und Computer, Zentralsparkasse Wien, Vienna. 1971, ars intermedia. Werkbeiträge zur Computerkunst, Zentralsparkasse Wien, Vienna.
Lit.: ars intermedia, Otto Beckmann and Alfred Grassl, Otto Beckmann und Alfred Graßl – Elektronische Computergrafik und cinematrische Abläufe (Visual Research), exhib. cat., Wiener Secession, Vienna, 1969. Otto Beckmann, ars intermedia. Werkbeiträge zur Computerkunst, exhib. cat., Zentralsparkasse Wien, Vienna, 1971.

— Art Research Center (ARC)

was founded in Kansas City, MO, USA, in 1966 by Thomas Michael Stephens, John Abbick, Harold Chase, David R. Garrison, Norton Nelkin, Nancy A. Stephens, Jon Brees Thogmartin, Philip J. van Voorst, and Joseph Ziegler. Later members include Gary Rice, Peter Clapp, and others. The group emerged from the New Center U.S. Art Cooperative Gallery in 1963 and 1964. First exhibitions of the group in 1966 and 1967 in Kansas City. From 1968, ARC had its own building with exhibition facilities in Kansas City.The activities of ARC included exhibitions, as well as symposia, lectures, concerts, theater performances, and educational projects.
Exhib.: 1966, Art Research Center Exhibition, Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, MO. 1967, The Relationships of Art and Science and Technology, Linda Hall Library of Science and Technology, Kansas City, MO. 1968, Art Research Center Group Exhibition, Anonima Gallery, New York.
Lit.: Journal of ARC: The Center, Kansas City, MO, 1966–1970.

— Jacques Arveiller

(1944, Monaco, MC) studied medicine, psychiatry, and information sciences. 1969 founding member of the Groupe Art et Informatique de Vincennes. 1969–1975 assistant medical doctor in a psychiatric hospital. 1970–1982 teaching assignment at the University of Vincennes, now University of Paris VIII, in information sciences. 1977–1993 psychiatrist in different psychiatric hospitals in France. Since 1994 professor of pedagogics at the University of Caen. He lives in Nogent-sur-Marne, FR.
Exhib.: See: Groupe Art et Informatique de Vincennes (GAIV).
Lit.: J. A. et al., “Le Système portable de synthèse hybride de Vincennes,” in: Informatique musicale 1977. Textes des conférences, Paris, 1978, pp. 193–204. See also: Groupe Art et Informatique Vincennes (GAIV).

— Marianne Aue

(1934, Freudental, DE) studied painting and textile design at the Werkkunstschule in Krefeld (1949–1954). She lives in Leichlingen, DE.
Exhib.: 1966, Weiss auf Weiss, Kunsthalle Bern.
Lit.: M. A., Marianne Aue, Mappe mit fünf Paratypien, Cologne, 1963.

— Vittorio d’Augusta

(1937, Rijeka, today HR) studied at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Bologna. 1962/1963 member of Gruppo di ricerca cibernetica. He lives in Rimini, IT.
Exhib.: See: Gruppo di ricerca cibernetica.